Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) for pMOS Transistors
Positive Bias (PTBI) for nMOS Transistors
A positive charge builds up at the channel interface of pMOS transistors under negative bias and high temperature conditions (positive bias for nMOS). This results in a threshold voltage increase and the IDsat decreases over time causing device instability and performance degradation.
Key failure components and conditions
- High temperature
- Dynamic cycling stress:
DC Stressing (instead of dynamic cycling) accelerates failures and may overestimate the problem
- Device starts to “relax” (recover) when stress is removed:
Multiple site testing requires multiple testers for continuous monitoring and to minimize delays between stress and test
- Test time can range from hours to weeks
- Temperatures above 100° C required
- Vth and IDsat must be monitored continuously
Reliability Test Equipment
P200-300 or 8000 series manual, motorized or semiautomatic: Feature highly stable base, low noise/low current design and integrated thermal chuck connections
Chucks: Low Noise Ambient and Thermal (to accelerate testing)
High isolation design supports low current tests and promotes stability
Thermal chuck range: -65°C to +400°C for 6 and 8" (150 and 200mm); -55° to +300°C for 12" (300mm) chucks.
Thermal chuck cast-in heating and cooling elements provide thermal ramp speed and surface uniformity.
Thermal chuck special mount and design reduces expansion of surface into the probes (minimizes contact resistance changes).
Thermal chuck base “radiator” cooled to prevent heat from getting to probe station stage causing expansion / movement and reliability issues
Light and EMI Shielding: MOS structures are light sensitive
P200-300 and 8000 series stations have a number of versions of optional integrated dark and dry enclosures
- Light tight enclosures (LTEs) for the best light, EMI and RFI shielding
- Station base and chuck chamber "Top Hats" for “local environment” dark and dry probing
Probe Contact: Probe Holder and Probe Tip
- Multiple manipulators and probes can test multiple test sites at any location on the wafer and in any test site pattern. The P200-300 and 8000 series probe stations offer large platen to hold many manipulators.
- Wave Manipulators with VersaTiles™ multiple probes provide super stability, long-term contact and flexibility. Wave Manipulators feature:
- “Link Arms” provide support and force for large pin counts
- 5 Axis of motion, X,Y,Z, Planarity and Theta
- Lead-screw/lead-nut Z drive for stability and consistent contact force
- Vacuum-assisted magnetic bases are stable, moveable and won’t tip if vacuum fails
- Straight and 90° attack angles for easy positioning and multi-VersaTile™ configurations
- Low noise/low current probe card holders for 8000 and 9000 which are designed to support Celadon high temperature, multi-site probe cards.
Low noise and low leakage level triaxial probes: Model 79-T and Model 83
Low contact resistance and larger probe tip are needed to handle large current densities. 7B-10G or HCT probes
HCT Probe tips reduce contact resistance by up to 7X and do not develop oxide over tip!
Integrated vibration isolation tables and light tight enclosure in combination with a vibration damping station design provide the highest degree of vibration control. Vibration control is critical to insure probe contact remains constant over long periods of time.
- All tests require good contact with long term stability.
- Thermal chucks are needed for accelerating failures. The H1000’s unique design is ideal.
- Individual probes are needed for small devices.
- Integrated systems of manipulators, probe holder and probes for high stability and contact integrity.
- Stations which support Wave manipulators with VersaTiles™ and Multi-site probe cards.